Prague is the Prague Castleof the Czech Republic and lies in the middle of Bohemia. Prague has been a political, cultural, and economic centre of central Europe. Its population is about 1.3 million people. The weather in Prague is changeable. The city has a temperate oceanic climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. It is situated on the Vltava river. The city is not completely flat thanks to this river, which cut a moderately deep valley into the plain. Prague has eight islands. The most beautiful island is Kampa. At Zofin you can take a romantic boat trip that will show you Prague from a different, untraditional angle. Prague is divided into ten numbered districts: Prague 1 through to Prague 10. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.
According to legends, Prague was founded by the Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the dynasty of the same name. By the year 800 there was a simple fort fortified with wooden buildings, occupying about two-thirds of the area that is now Prague Castle. The first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century. The region became the seat of the dukes, and later kings of Bohemia. Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews. Prague contained an important slave market.
In Prague King Vladislaus II had the first bridge built in 1170, thePrague Castle(Juditin most), named in honor of his wife Judith of Thuringia. This bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342. Some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain.
Prague flourished during the 14th-century reign (1346–1378) of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Bohemia of the new Luxembourg dynasty. As King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, he transformed Prague into an imperial capital and it was at that time the third-largest city in Europe (after Rome and Constantinople). The Charles Bridge, replacing the Judith Bridge destroyed in the flood just prior to his reign, was erected to connect the right bank districts to the Malá Strana and castle area. Its construction started in 1357 and finished in the beginning of the 15th century. In 1347, Charles IV founded Charles University, which remains the oldest university in Central Europe. He began construction of the Gothic Saint Vitus Cathedral, within the largest of the Prague Castle courtyards. Prague was elevated to an archbishopric in 1344, the year the cathedral was begun. The Hunger Wall, a substantial fortification wall south of Malá Strana and the Castle area, was built during a famine in the 1360s. The work is reputed to have been ordered by Charles IV as a means of providing employment and food to the workers and their families.
In 1415 reformer Jan Hus is burned at the stake in Constance.
In 1419 was the First Defenestration of Prague. Beginning of the Hussite wars with a not only religious but also social and national character. Their general was Jan Žižka.
1526 – 1612: Regency of Emperor Rudolph II of Habsburg. Prague becomes capital of the Holy Roman Empire and the centre of arts and sciences once again.
1618: The Second Defenestration of Prague marks the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War. However the Czech Army under Charles IV was crushed in the Battle of White Mountain (1620). Following this in 1621 was an execution of 27 Czech leaders in Old Town Square and the exiling of many others. The Battle of Prague in 1648 was the last action of the Thirty Years‘ War. It was a battle between Swedish Empire and Bohemia.
The First Republic: World War I ended with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the creation of Czechoslovakia. Prague was chosen as its capital and Prague Castle as the seat of president (Tomáš Masaryk).
Second World War: Hitler ordered the German Army to enter Prague on 15 March 1939 and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. For most of its history Prague had been a multi-ethnic city with important Czech, German and (mostly Czech- and/or German-speaking) Jewish populations. From 1939, when the country was occupied by Nazi Germany, and during World War II, most Jews were deported and killed by the Germans. In 1942, Prague was witness to the assassination of one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany – Reinhard Heydrich during Operation Anthropoid, accomplished by Czech national heroes Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš.
Cold War: Prague was a city in the territory of military and political control of the Soviet Union.
In 1969 student Jan Palach dies by selfimmolation at Wenceslas Square as a protest against the oppression of his people.
1974: The first underground train is set in operation in Prague.
1977: The civil rights movement Charta 77 establishes itself as the oppositional power.
Era after the Velvet Revolution: In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague, and the Czechoslovak capital benefited greatly from the new mood. In 1993, after the split of Czechoslovakia, Prague became the capital city of the new Czech Republic.
1999: The Czech Republic joins NATO.
In 2002 Prague suffered from widespread floods that damaged buildings and also its underground transport system.
2004: The Czech Republic becomes a member of the European Union.
- Prague Castle
Prague castle lies in Hradčany. Inside, there is large gothic Vladislav Hall which is used for representative purposes, Spanish Hall where president is elected and Rudolf´s Gallery. At the castle, you can visit St. Vitus cathedral which was built in gothic style. There are saved Czech Crown Jewells.
- The Castle Guard
The Prague Castle is 24 hours a day guarded by elite unites of the Castle Guard.
- Golden Lane
The Golden Lane – a narrow street with small colourful houses – is one of the most popular attractions in Prague’s castle complex. The picturesque street is named for the goldsmiths who lived here during the 17th century.
The Prague Loreta is an elegant Baroque tower with its famous chimes. Every hour throughout the day, the Magnificat is rung out by 27 bells of various sizes, which are connected to a special keyboard.
- Strahov Monastery
Strahov Monastery was founded in 1149.
- Prague Astronomical Clock
The Petřín Lookout Tower is a 63.5 metre high steel framework tower in Prague, which strongly resembles the Eiffel Tower. It was built in 1891 and was used as an observation tower as well as a transmission tower.
- Infant Jesus of Prague
It is a 16th century Roman Catholic wax-coated wooden statue of child Jesus located in the Church of Our Lady Victorious (Kostel Panny Marie Vítězné) in Malá Strana, Prague Czech Republic. The statue is 45 cm tall, and is considered to have miraculous healing powers.
- Charles Bridge
The bridge is 621 meters long and nearly 10 meters wide and it is decorated by a continuous alley of 30 statues and statuaries, most of them baroque-style, originally erected around 1700 but now all replaced by replicas.
- Prague Astronomical Clock
The clock was first installed in 1410 on the southern wall of Old Town City Hall in the Old Town Square, making it the third-oldest astronomical clock in the world and the oldest one still working.
- Municipal House
It is a major civic landmark and concert hall in Prague and an important building in architectural and political history in the Czech Republic. There are several restaurants and cafes on the ground floor and basement.
- Powder Gate
It is a Gothic tower in Prague. The foundation stone was laid down in 1475.
- Estates Theatre
It is a historic theatre in Prague. The building itself was constructed in a Neoclassical style. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart conducted the world premiere of his opera Don Giovanni here in October 1787. In 1834 the premiere of the song “Where is my Home?” was performed here, which would later become the Czech national anthem.
It is a historic complex of buildings in Prague. It is currently in use as the National Library of the Czech Republic.
- Old Jewish Cemetery
It was in use from the early 15th century until 1787.
- Wenceslas Square
It is one of the main city squares and the centre of the business and cultural communities in the New Town of Prague, Czech Republic. Many historical events occurred there, and it is a traditional setting for demonstrations, celebrations, and other public gatherings. The square is named after Saint Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia.
- National Museum
It is a Czech museum institution intended to systematically establish, prepare and publicly exhibit natural scientific and historical collections. It was founded in 1818.
- National Theatre
It belongs to the most important Czech cultural institutions. Today the National Theatre consists of three artistic ensembles–opera, ballet and drama.
- Dancing House
- Vyšehrad cemetery
Established in 1869 on the grounds of Vyšehrad Castle in Prague, Czech Republic, the Vyšehrad cemetery is the final resting place of many composers, artists, sculptors, writers, and those from the world of science and politics.
Troja Castle, Prague Zoo, Botanical Garden, St. Clare Vineyard
- Castle (Hradčany) – the highest point on the left bank
- Lesser Town (Malá strana) – The settlement around the castle; location of most governmental authorities, including Czech Parliament.
- Old Town (Staré město)
- New Town (Nové město
- Jewish Town (Josefov)
- Vysehrad (Vyšehrad)
Ke stažení zde: Prague