The Czech Repulic
Introduction: The Czech Republic is a state situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of about 78.000 square kilometres and has about 10.5 million inhabitants. The capital of the country is Prague with more than one million inhabitants. The national flag consists of a white and red stripes and a blue triangle. The national anthem is the song “Where my home is” by Josef Kajetán Tyl. The Czech emblem is divided into quarters. In the first and fourth there is a silver two tailed lion with a golden crown. In the second and third fields (pole) there is a Moravian and Silesian eagle.
Geography: The Czech Republic is a land-locked (inland) country with moderate (mírné) climate. Neighbouring countries are Poland, Germany, Austria and Slovakia. The country is made up to three regions, Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. The landscape is varied. The most popular mountain ranges are Šumava, Krušné hory, Orlické hory, Jeseník Jizerské hory and Krkonoše with the highest peak Sněžka, which is 1602 m high.
The Czech Republic is traditionally an industrial country. Besides engineering industry there are the chemical industry, food industry, textile industry, metallurgy and other sorts of industry. Also the agriculture is developed.
The history was began in the 4th century B.C., when several tribes exchanged in our area. There were the Celtic, Germanic and Slavic. The country began to form in the 9th century with the creation of Great Moravia. After its fall, the Czech state appeared with help from the Premyslids. The kingdom of Bohemia was important and powerful in the region, but conflicts like the Hussite Wars in the 15th century and the 30Years War in the 17th century hurt it. Under the reign of the Habsburgs it became part of the Empire of Austria-Hungary. This Empire collapsed after 1st WW, the Czechs formed a new country, known as Czechoslovakia. But 2nd WW was again destructive to the country, which was occupied by the Germans. After the war ended, Czechoslovakia fell under the influence of the Soviet Union. The country remained a Communist state until the peaceful revolution in 1989. The Czechs and Slovaks split, and in 1993, the country we call the Czech Republic was put on the map.
Political system: The Czech Republic was set up on 1st January 1993 as one of the two successor (nástupce) states of the former Czechoslovak Federal Republic. According to the constitution (podle Ústavy) , created in 1993, the Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy with the president as the head of state. The main executive power is excercised by the President and the Government with ministries. The President is elected every five years and he appoints the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is typically the leader of the party with the majority of seats of the Chamber of Deputies, acts as the head of government. The main legislative power is performed by the national parliament. The parliament consists of two chambers: The Chamber of Deputies, which consists of 200 members elected by popular vote for four-year terms and The Senate, which consists of 81 members elected for six-year terms; one third of the Senate’s seats come up for election every two years. All citizens over the age 18 are eligible to vote. The next part political system are Courts of justice. The highest court of appeal in the Czech Republic is the Supreme Court. Supreme Court judges are appointed by the President for unlimited terms.
Holidays: are 28th of September – Saint Wenceslas Day, 28th October – Independence Day (Czechoslovakia was established) and for example 17th November – Struggle for Freedom and Democracy Day