The history of the USA
The present-day United States was first populated by people migrating from Asia (now they are called Native Americans) who inhabited America before the arrival of European explorers in the 15th century.
Later, the area was a British colony.
On July 4, 1776, the United States was born when 13 British colonies in North America declared their independence. Though the colonies did not have a professional army like the British, they were helped by Britain’s old enemies France and Spain. There was a war, which ended in 1783 with an American victory.
In 1787, the United States drafted a constitution, and in 1789 George Washington became the first President of the United States. This was the beginning of the so called “experiment in democracy”.
19th century America – the Civil War
America expanded greatly in the 19th century. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from Napoleon Bonaparte of France. The Louisiana Purchase added 2.1 million square km to the US.
This period also saw many wars. In 1812, the US went to war again with Britain, and was victorious after three years. But the biggest and the bloodiest war America fought was the Civil War, 1861 – 1865.
The southern states tried to leave the union because they did not want slavery to be abolished. They formed a new country, the Confederate States of America, and went to war with the US. After four bloody years, the industrial North was able to defeat the agrarian South, and the war came to an end. President Abraham Lincoln wanted to allow the South to re-join the union without penalty, but he was assassinated just as the war ended.
Without Lincoln, the US punished the South for the rebellion, and kept soldiers in the former Confederate states for twelve years. This is something southerners still cannot forget. In 1898, the US went to war against Spain, and won from them many islands including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.
The 20th century and the Cold War
In the 20th century, the US became one of the most dominant powers in the world.
America participated in both world wars during this time, and ended WWII as one of two superpowers (the USSR was the other). The Atomic Age began in 1945 when the US dropped A-bombs on Japan. This ended WWII, but afterwards the US and USSR began a contest to dominate the world. The Cold War lasted over forty years and ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. While the Soviets were able to compete in technology, they could not match America’s economy and natural resources.
Today the US is the only superpower in the world, and because of this many countries do not like America. American involvement in the Middle East has been very unpopular, and many people dislike American domination of world markets and politics. Though the US may not be as popular as it once was, no one can deny
the experiment in democracy has been a success.
History of UK
The celts built Stonehenge before the year 0.The Romans invaded (napadli) Endland in 45 AD („enou doumináj“ = Anno Domini).The Anglo-Saxons came to England from Germany and had many battles with Vikings in the centuries following the year 400 AD.Alfred the Great organised the Anglo-Saxon army, translated important books from Latin into Old English and started a school system between 871 and 899.
The Battle of Hastings is when William the Conqueror of Normandy (France) beat Harald of England in 1066. (Everything changed.)Dark ages is when many people died in wars and from the Black Death in the 12th and 13th centuries.Henry („the“) VIII separated England from Rome and founded the Church of England in 1534.
The Wars of the Roses – 15th century; between the House of York and the House of Lancaster (better position being led by king Henry IV); the Earl of Warwick called the Kingmaker; end the Battke of Bosworth – Richard III was killed and Henry Tudor – King Henry VII married Elizabeth of Yorh à Tudor monarchy lasted till 1603
The Tudor Age – consolidation of royal power; the repression of any opposition and the great wealth of the king; Henry VII controlled the Parliament ; Henry VIII inclined towards pride,ambition, brutality, has 6wives and established the Church of England, children – Mary, Mary I (Bloody Mary), Elisabeth I, Edward VI who ruled England
Elizabeth I à Elizabethan Age (1558-1603) – she enforced the Protestant religion by law; Roman Catholic Spain led to the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 à England became the leading power on the sea à colonial development of the English power in America and East India à the Renaissance came to its heigt (Shakespeare); economic sphere enclosures were going on àtrade prospered
Celthic words: penguin (white eye)
Latin words: letter, AM (ante meridiam), PM (post meridiam)
Anglo-Saxon words: fork, knife, key, chicken
French words: age , fruit, dessert, language