Australia (2)

Australia is a state, which is surrounded by the Indian and  Pacific Ocean. It covers whole are of the smallest continent Australia. Australia is located in south-west from Asia. The capital city is Canberra. Explored by James Cook. Peninsula colony in history.

Surface and Climate

  • The biggest island Tasmania island.
  • The highest peak is Kosciusko in the Great Diving Range.
  • The longest river are Murrays and Darling.
  • There are three big lakes: Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens and Lake Gardner.
  • The centre and west of Australia is dominated by deserts.
  • In the south-east and in the east parts there is the temperature climate and in the north Australia is a tropical climate. The west and central Australia is dry.


  • only 22 million inhabitants
  • the state of immigrants -most people from Europe (GB) after 2ndWW from east Europe, many Asians
  • The original inhabitants are Aborigines, they live mostly in the north of Australia, social problem (gambling, alcoholism poverty…), today about 400 000 of Aborigines live in Australia.
  • more than 60% Australians are Christian
  • English
  • big cities Perth, Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane…

Political system and consist

  • Australia is democratic and federal state. The formal head is queen Elisabeth II., who is represented by General Governor so Australia is a constitutional monarchy and member state of Commonwealth.
  • It consists of 6 states(New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria..) and 2 major territories(Canberra, Northern territory).
  • Parliament and government have seat in Canberra. The prime minister is Tony Abbotte.


  • High developed state – the services are the most important
  • The most important branches of industry are iron industry, textiles(Quiksilver), chemical industry.
  • Mining of gold, iron, black and brown coal. Oil and gas production.
  • Sheep and beef breading = It is the highest exporter of beef, lamb, wool.
  • The national currency is the Australian dollar


  • Rugby, cricket, surfing, diving
  • Olympic games 2000
  • Australian open – Melbourne

The places of interest

  • Greet Barrier Reef- spectacular marine life, diving
  • Ayers rock-big orange rock in central Australia, important for Aborigines
  • Big cities – Melbourne, Sydney (Opera House)
  • Australian beaches-surfing